Following the same criteria and prescriptive requirements as the Cambridge results, the total energy required to be offset for each of the five scenarios previously discussed is summarized in the following figure.
Figure 13: Total Energy Use Vancouver 4 All Scenarios
The effect that the each scenario has on the overall energy intensity, PV array size, cost and simple payback are summarized in the table below.
Table 13: Option Summary Vancouver
As can be seen in the previous table, although the annual energy intensity and PV array size are both reduced as compared to the Cambridge results, the PV array cost remains high, and the payback is significantly longer than what is typically acceptable.
The size of the PV array remains large because of the reduction in solar resource for harvesting. Across British Columbia, solar produces approximately 1100 kWh of electricity per kW capacity installed (down from 1,200 kWh in Ontario). This accounts for the slightly larger capacity requirements in British Columbia. The lack of a similar incentive program to the Ontario FIT program leaves the cost of harvested solar electricity equal to the utility cost of the building, in this case $0.10/kWh (down from $0.713/kWh for roof mounted PV and $0.443/kWh for ground mounted PV). Also, due to the reduced income leading to lower demand in the province, the cost to acquire and install PV panels is also higher in British Columbia than Ontario at a price of approximately $6,000 per kW installed (up from $5,500).
The significant payback period of PV warrants a more detailed look at other available technologies. In British Columbia, wind energy production on average is still lower with approximately 1,800 kWh per kW installed as compared to 2,000 kWh per kW installed in Ontario. However, since there is a lack of incentive to install renewable technologies in British Columbia, the payback is more attractive compared to solar, at between 30 and 45 years (depending on the cost for maintenance). Because of the other problems previously mentioned (maintenance, insurance, complaints), it still is not recommended for a large scale adoption. Other renewable options, such as biomass, do not lend themselves to inclusion in all five scenarios investigated, and introduce further problems related to the transportation and storage of the fuel.
Solar PV is still recommended as the renewable technology to generate the required on site electricity.
Assuming an average utility rate of $0.10/kWh for electricity, $0.25/m³ for natural gas, and $0.004/ekWh for purchased offset, the estimated utility costs for all five scenarios in Vancouver are summarized along with the economics of including PV in the following table.
Table 14: Vancouver Cost Summary